Learning English together

III. THE ARTICLE
1. The Definite Article [articolul hotarat]
THE [ðə]
D. inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o consoana: the book, the table, the boy;
E. inainte de h sonor: the hat, the hero
F. inainte de sunetul [ju]: the uniform, the university, the youth
[ði]
G. inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala: the egg, the apple, the ear
H. inainte de h mut: the honour, the heir, the hour
Utilizare:
1. Sbst. cunoscute de ambii vorbitori: I have the book.
2. Lucruri unice: the moon, the sun, the Bible
3. State, mari, oceane, rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule: The United States
of America, the Red Sea, the Bahamas, the Atlantic, the Rhine, the Carpathians,
the Bahamas
4. Nationalitati, dinastii, familii: the French, the Tudors, the Browns
5. Profesii: the milkman, the doctor, the professor
6. Adjective, gerunzii, participii, desemnand o clasa: the rich, the injured, the
missing
7. Nume proprii cu constructia OF: the Sea of Aral, the Avenue of the Americas
8. Publicatii: the Guardian, the Sunday Times
9. Expresii fixe: by the way, on the one hand/ on the other hand, at the seaside, in the
morning, in the mountains, to tell the truth, for the time being.

THE nu se foloseste:
1. Plurale si nenumarabile folosite generic:
Bears are mammals.
Meat costs more these days.
2. Locuri publice [ca institutii]: Is she at school? He is in prison.
3. Tari, continente, orase, judete: China, Britain, Australia, London, Essex
4. Mesele zilei, anotimpuri, luni: breakfast, lunch, spring – In winter I like skiing.
5. Nume proprii chiar daca sunt precedate de titluri: John, Dr. Smith, Professor
Brown, Queen Elizabeth
6. Strazi: She lives on Elm Street.
7. Munti singuri: Mount Everest
8. Lacuri: Lake Ontario

2. The Indefinite Article [Articolul Nehotarat]
a [ə]
– inaintea consoanelor: a dog, a notebook, a bear;
– inainte de h sonor: a hero, a home;
– inainte de [ju]: a university, a young man, a uniform;
an [ən]
I. inainte de vocale: an egg, an owl, an elephant;
J. inainte de h mut: an hour, an honour;
Utilizare:
1. Cand se introduce o notiune noua in context: There is a bird on that tree.
2. Dupa constructia there is: There is a picture on the wall. There is an egg on the
table.
3. Functie generica: A cat is an animal.
4. Functie numerica [in loc de one]: a hundred, a million, a dozen, a half, a third,
once a year.
5. Expresii fixe: just a moment, once in a blue moon, all of a sudden, at a time, to
keep an eye on.
A/an Nu se foloseste:
1. Materii/ substante, abstractii: Water freezes in winter. They are interested in
literature.
2. Nume proprii: They speak English in Australia.
3. Substantive la plural: There were books and pens on the table.

1. In limba engleza substantivele sunt:
A. Proprii: England, John, Lake Placid
B. Comune:
a. Numarabile
K. concrete: boy, girl;
L. abstracte: dream, idea
b. nenumarabile:
M. concrete: bread, milk, meat;
N. abstracte: hate, advice
A. Substantivele proprii
Folosite pentru personae, locuri, lucruri, idei considerate a fi unice si sunt scrise cu
majuscule:
a. nume: Deborah, John;
b. titluri: Mr. Jackson, Miss Brown, Sir Christopher, Sergeant Jones, Professor
Clark;
c. date calendaristice: Sunday, Monday, January, March, Christmas, Halloween;
d. nume geografice: Albania, Britain, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Ocean;
13
e. titluri de carti, ziare: Gone with the Wind, The Guardian, The United nations
Organization;
f. nationalitati si limbi: English, Greek, Italian, Polish;
B. Substantivele Comune:
Sunt toate substantivele care nu desemneaza o persoana anume, lucruri, locuri sau
idei unice. Pot fi numarabile sau nenumarabile. Un substantive este numaranil daca:
O. are forma de plural: girls, boys;
P. poate fi precedat de a/an: a car, an ox;
Q. poate fi precedat de How many sau a few: How many books have you got?/ I have
a few oranges.
R. Pooate fi precedat de numere: two pencils, three books.
Daca nu au nici una din calitatile enumerate mai sus, sunt nenumarabile: blood, sugar,
weather, luggage, etc.
Unele pot fi numarabile dar se schimba sensul:
I drink coffee every morning. – a cup of coffee –
She hates coffee. – in general –
I have all the papers you want. – acte –
Books are made of paper. – hartie –

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About puffyclouds92

I love to consider myself an open minded person that loves to learn new things as much as possible. Spiritual, but open to ideas and theories, vegeterian and an avid animal lover loving the life with my baby that happens to be a dog 😁 Thank you for stopping by !
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